Stuffed just a tad beyond capacity

marx stateroom
All my script needs now is the line “…and a dozen hard boiled eggs.”

As the dog days of summer lazily drift on by, each of those days sees me dedicating a portion of it to working on the next small section of the horror-comedy outline. So far – it’s coming along nicely.

For now, it’s just filling in the blanks between primary plot points. Not counting those, I tend to think and plot things out in a linear manner; going from A to B to C and so on, rather than A to B to J, and then maybe filling in that stretch between D and F. This approach helps with not only crafting the developments of the main storyline, but also the subplots and figuring out how all the interconnections work. Others may do it differently, which is fine. This way works for me.

What originally starts out as one to two sentences summarizing what happens in a scene quickly becomes lengthy descriptions, including specific character actions and snippets of dialogue. This has caused the outline to appear dense and bulky, or at least that’s how it looks at first glance.

At first this would appear to be a bad thing, but keep in mind that this is only the outline, so a scene write-up that appears as an impenetrable block of text here might translate to, say, half to three-quarters of a page, including dialogue. Not a bad exchange rate.

Just as an example, as a scene was playing out, it kept getting longer and longer, which would have run way too long for both script and screen. Realizing that simply would not do, I made some minor modifications and managed to break this exceptionally large scene into three slightly smaller ones. Each one still retains the point I wanted to make, as well as continuing to advance the plot, theme, and characters. A win all around.

The way I figure it, it’s a lot better to have an overabundance of material during this stage, and then be able to cut, trim, or maybe even add more where necessary down the road.

Another key part to all this development is making sure everything I come up with plays some kind of role in the overall context of the story. Call it the “keep only if relevant” rule. If there’s something on the page that has nothing to do with the story or the characters, then why have it there in the first place?

Ask a Guy Who Takes Comedy Very Seriously!

Steve Kaplan

The latest in a series of interviews with script readers and consultants who would be worth your while to work with if you want to get your script in shape. Today focuses on writing comedy, so the spotlight is on Steve Kaplan, who runs the Comedy Intensive course.

1. What would you call a good example of some great comedy writing in recent TV or film?

It’s sometimes difficult to separate great comic writing from great comic performances. That being said, I think the best comedy writing on television occurs, day in and day out, on The Daily Show and the Colbert Report. Both shows are able to combine sharp satire with great comic characters, and in the case of The Daily Show, much of the comedy benefits from the relationship between Jon Stewart’s somewhat befuddled and beleaguered news anchor and his crew of inspiringly loony correspondents.

Much has been written about the death of the sitcom, but Network TV still offers the great work from The Simpsons (25 years, and still going strong) and Modern Family’s writing staff, while cable is a treasure trove of niche delights, from sketch shows like Inside Amy Schumer to episodics like Louie, Veep, Getting On, and Episodes. I’m also looking forward to the Breaking Bad prequel, Better Call Saul.

The comedy feature record is spottier. Big hits like Dumb and Dumber To and Hangover 3 may have made a lot of money, but for me, my favorite comedy of 2014 was The Grand Budapest Hotel—funny, lovely, odd, stylish, a little sad, touching and in the end, really about something. (As of this writing, I still haven’t seen The Interview, but I’m really looking forward to it. The trailer made me laugh out loud, it provoked North Korea into a mammoth cyber-attack on Sony—what’s not to like?)

Film comedies I’ve enjoyed from the past few years include Silver Linings Playbook, American Hustle, Moonrise Kingdom, The Trip and The Trip to Italy, This Is The End, Nebraska, Warm Bodies, The Way Way Back, Ted —exactly the way I like my comedies. Some were silly and looney, but looking over the list, most were funny, lovely, odd, stylish, a little sad, touching and in the end, really about something. What can I say. You might like vanilla; I like chocolate. In the end, it’s subjective.

2. What’s your comedy background?

As a kid, I was awkward and kind of odd—I was drawn to comedy because I noted that in comedy movies, the funny guys were awkward and kind of odd, but sometimes got the girl! That was good enough for me!

In college, I studied acting and directing. After college, I was given an opportunity to start an Off-Off Broadway theatre. I convinced my two partners that we should start a theatre that was completely devoted to comedy. Manhattan Punch Line helped launch the careers of actors like Nathan Lane and Oliver Platt, and writers like Michael Patrick King, Peter Tolan and David Crane. While at the Punch Line, I taught classes and worked with and directed sketch groups. I began to wonder why something that was incredibly funny on Thursday night would get no laughs on Sunday. Why sometimes the funniest performance of a play was at its very first table read? What was going on here? That’s when I started seriously exploring the art and the science—some would even call it the physics—of comedy.

At the time, I was teaching an improv class. Without telling the actors, I started experimenting with them—devising improv games to get at the core of comedy: how it works, why it works, what’s going on when it stops working, and what the hell can you do about it?

These experiments led to the discovery of a series of techniques, which in turn led to a forty week Master Class in comedy. When I moved to LA, I it was suggested to me that I gear my course to writers. “You could be the Robert McKee of comedy!” was how Derek Christopher (who produces the annual Story Expo in LA) put it. That led to teaching comedy around the globe, and working with companies like DreamWorks Animation, Disney Animation, Screen Australia and Film Victoria, working as a consultant with writers and producers, publishing my book, The Hidden Tools of Comedy, and ultimately, being interviewed by you.

3. Who are some of your comedic inspirations/role models? What is it about them in particular that appeals to you?

That’s a hard question to answer. I’m a fan of great comedy, and the list of great comedy writers performers and creators could go on and on. There are parts of careers that inspired me—early to mid Woody Allen, late George Carlin, some Mel Brooks, Bob Hope in the “Road” movies, Steve Martin in Roxanne and L.A. Story and Bowfinger, Monty Python, Fawlty Towers, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, Seinfeld, Lily Tomlin, The Bob Newhart Show, All In The Family, Richard Pryor, Chris Rock, Louie C.K., Lenny Bruce, Sarah Silverman, Tom Lehrer (okay, and Allan Sherman), George Burns, Bill Irwin, Judd Apatow, Broadcast News and As Good As It Gets. I’m sure I’m leaving out twenty that after this is posted, I’ll hit myself on the forehead, shouting, “How could I forget _________?!!?”

What they all have in common, in some fashion, is an immediacy, honesty (in some cases, a ferocious honesty), an ability to see a slightly off-centered view of the world, and then share it so we see it as well. They all made me laugh, and most had the ability to touch the heart, to make you care and still be funny!

4. Do you think someone can be taught to be funny, or is it something that just comes naturally?

Groucho Marx once said “you can’t teach funny.” But the Marx Brothers were a terrible, just terrible, act when their Mother Minnie first pushed them out on stage. But working eight a day in vaudeville, picking up hints and tips from the other performers, they honed their act into one of the greatest comedy teams of all time. But it wasn’t ‘natural,’ it was through apprenticeship, observation and yes, being taught by other performers.

While you can’t teach someone to be more talented, you can teach someone to act and write to the best of their ability.  And just like you can teach drama, you can certainly teach comedy. Yes, comedy can be taught.

5. What would you recommend for a writer who wants to develop or sharpen their comedy-writing skills?

What can writers do to sharpen their skills? Hang around with other funny people.

There are two great ways to do that. One would be to join an improv group or take improv classes. Since much of comedy is character-based, the best way to get inside a character’s head is to be one. Even if you’re not interested in being a performer or stand-up, the comic skills you’ll pick up are invaluable when writing material, whether it’s long form or short form, or just a set-up and punch line.

The second piece of advice would be to form or join a writers’ group. Once you’ve written your material, it’s imperative to hear the material read out loud in front of even a small group of friends and colleagues. It’s basic to comedy: the interaction between script/performer and audience. You’ve got to hear how those golden pearls play when read by humans to humans. You’re not looking for hours of rehearsal and polished performances, but just an intelligent read can tell you what’s alive and kicking in your script, and what’s dead as a doornail, only you don’t know it yet. So, in a nutshell: Funny people get funnier when in the company of other funny people.

6. Are there any comedy cliches you consider overused? Which ones are you just tired of seeing?

I’ve really tried to think of some that I hope never to see again, but I kept coming up with exceptions to the rule. Spit-takes are overdone, yet I still laugh when Desi or Danny does one. Getting kicked in the balls is another, yet there’s a beat in Monsters, Inc. when Billy Crystal’s one-eyed character lands hard on his privates, and I’m sorry, it’s only a cartoon, but it’s funny. At least I thought so. I guess the difference is a meme or bit done by rote, and one enhanced by a great character or performance.

The things I am tired of seeing are scripts overloaded with weak, puerile jokes; scripts in which every character is a wise-cracker or failed stand-up comedian.

7. What’s the funniest joke you’ve ever read or heard from a non-professional ?

Hmmm. . . my six-year old niece once asked me, “Did you hear about the peanut walking alone in the park at night? It was a salted.” I thought that was pretty funny.

8. How can people contact you to find out more about your services?

My website is www.KaplanComedy.com, and my email address is Steve@KaplanComedy.com. In addition, you can follow me on Twitter at @skcomedy or on Facebook at Facebook.com/KaplanComedy. In addition to presenting one and two day workshops in the US and abroad, I’m also available for script consultations, whether on full-feature scripts, pilots, webisodes or treatments.

9. Readers of this blog are more than familiar with my love/appreciation of pie. What’s your favorite kind?

Man, that’s a tough question. I love Boston Cream Pie and apple pie a la mode, but if I’m on a desert island, and can only have one slice, I’ll go with pumpkin pie—ice cream on the side!

An extremely important part of the writing process!

(Why this clip? Because it’s funny.)

*Thanks to Dave Trottier, author of THE SCREENWRITER’S BIBLE, for inspiring this post.

When you go to the movies or watch something at home, you want to be entertained. Goes without saying, right? If it’s a dull story, then you’re going to be bored out of your skull. Who wants that?

Certainly not the person who wrote the script. They want you to have a good time! To care about what happens next! To find the travails of these characters so fascinating you focus all your attention on what’s transpiring on the screen in front of you!

As always, it starts with the script. Is it lively and colorful, or drab and sluggish? Do scenes zip along, keeping things interesting, or do they just sit there and nothing happens?

It’s not just about what’s happening in the story, but how the story is told. Think about how you’d tell a joke. Not in a flat monotone, but animated with hand gestures and facial expressions.  Your job as a screenwriter is to do the same thing, but with words.

“But I can’t do that!,” you might say. Sure you can. Look at the last thing you wrote. Does it make you want to keep reading? If not, how could you change it so you’d want to?

One of the most important things a writer should do is NOT see writing as a chore. If that’s the case, then you shouldn’t be writing in the first place.  You write because you like (or even love) to.  So enjoy it.

Enjoy yourself. Have fun.  And when you’re done, it’ll be right there on the page for everybody else to see.

At least it’s something

The past few days have not been kind.

I thought I made some good progress with some slight revamping of the major plot points, at least in terms of my page 45 and midpoint.  The problem was getting from what I had already developed to this new set-up.

I couldn’t figure out what to write.  And when a writer doesn’t know what to write, it’s very frustrating.

It probably didn’t help that I read those two Black List scripts.  The writing in those was really impressive.  Mine?  Not so much right now.

But I also reminded myself that those other scripts weren’t first drafts.  I bet they had the same kind of problems putting them together that I am now.  And that actually help me feel better.  I know this will all come together in the end.  It’s the gettin’ there that kills you.

Today, I was determined to make some kind of progress and move forward.

One of the things I always use as a placeholder during the outline process is a note to myself in a scene to WORK ON THIS or EXPAND! or DEVELOP.

Which is exactly what I did.  I had a general idea of what I wanted to happen in one sequence, tried to play out the scenario in my mind and put it on the page.

And it worked.  Which is nice.

Even better, I changed something in the scene right after that one that presents more of a challenge to my main character.  Before, she was able to figure something out too easily, so I made it really hard for her.

Since conflict is vital to a good story, one of the best questions a writer needs to ask him or herself: what’s the worst thing that can happen to your character to make achieving their goal that much harder?  If Luke and Co just stroll into the Death Star, get Leia and leave, that wouldn’t be much of a story, would it?

Before, this sequence came across as too easy for my heroine.  Now, she really has to pull herself out of a really deep hole.

And now the fun really begins.  I need to figure out how to have the three separate subplots tie together, and about 8-10 pages to do it in.

And I can do it, too.  Not quickly, but I can.  And will.

No Movie of the Moment right now, but V discovered the magic that is the Marx Brothers courtesy of Turner Classic Movies on New Year’s Eve.  If you don’t laugh during the mirror sequence from DUCK SOUP, then something is wrong with you.