Q & A with Jenny Frankfurt of Finish Line

Jenny Frankfurt is the founder of The Finish Line Script Competition. She was a literary manager in LA, NYC and London for over 20 years.

What’s the last thing you read/watched you considered to be exceptionally well-written?

I May Destroy You. Hands down the best show I’ve seen in the past year, and I’ve watched A LOT during Covid lockdown.

I also think Revelation, which won the Grand Prize Winner in this year’s Finish Line competition, is one of the best pilots I’ve ever read.

How’d you get your start in the industry?

I was at Tisch School of the Arts at NYU in the Cinema Studies Department and applied for a job as a floater (permanent temp) at the William Morris Agency. I got the job and realized I wouldn’t be able to do do it and fulfill any kind of classes. Since my plan was to work in representation after I graduated, I dropped out and started working instead. Though I wish I had finished college for personal reasons, it was the greatest opportunity I could’ve had. My time at William Morris (now William Morris Endeavor) was the most educational of my career.

Is recognizing good writing something you think can be taught or learned?

The more writing, bad and good, you do, and films/TV you watch, also bad and good, the better one can be at discovering what good writing truly is. Good writing is not subjective in my opinion, but one’s taste in various styles of writing is. I’ve always been a voracious reader since I was little. When I started covering scripts for the talent department at William Morris, I’d read them incredibly carefully and determine what roles were important for casting and not. To read something carefully is one of the most important elements of being a good recognizer of what is working and what isn’t. That and having an open heart and mind to story, ideas and the ways storytelling connects to our emotions. The more you read and pay attention, the more these things become evident.

What do you consider the components of a good script?

It’s become clearer to me that the writer’s voice is the most important thing in a script. It’s what sets a great script apart from a good script. Theme and emotion ought to be linked, and when done right can be very powerful. Characters written without feeling will come across as just that – they’ve been outlined and written. All of this, when done really well, pops off the page. It’s a joy to see.

What are some of the most common screenwriting mistakes you see?

Lack of planning in a story. Set pieces that are there only because the writer had a cool idea and stuck it in a script that doesn’t connect to that scene or narrative. Ideas and development of characters that are just good enough. Just good enough isn’t enough anymore. Energy on the page is a necessity.

What story tropes are you just tired of seeing? 

Crying in the shower, sliding down the wall, a single tear. Mainly though forever the answer to this question will be road trip movies. Almost impossible to write them without them being full of every trope. Joe needs $25K or his mother will not get the operation she needs and gosh, an opportunity to get this money happens to present itself and hijinks occur. It may be fun, it may have merit, but it’s a trope.

What are some key rules/guidelines every writer should know?

There are no rules.

Just tell the story.

Outline. 

Create an interesting setting and fascinating characters. Plop them in and let it happen.

Research the industry; know the ‘players’, read the trades.

When you receive notes, take what you like and leave the rest. Keep your voice.

Leave your ego at the door.

Have you ever read a script where you thought “This writer gets it”? If so, what were the reasons why?

Oh wow, yes. But most of the time if you ask the writer they don’t know that they have! There’s a certain beauty in a confident piece of writing, no matter the medium. It’s a lack of excess rather than an addition of something. It’s the combination of just enough emotion, character development, story hook, theme. Just tell the story.

Seeing as how you run a screenwriting contest, what are the benefits for screenwriters to enter the Finish Line competition?

You can rewrite and resubmit new drafts for free throughout the competition and our notes are fantastic. They really are. They’re actionable so they don’t just say what works and what doesn’t, but we offer suggestions on how to fix it when it’s not working. We work with our writers so you feel connected; not just a fee thrown into the ethers. We want to help you get your script in the best shape you can by the end of the competition. If you don’t win, you still have a better script for another competition or a manager or producer. 

Also, we have a large number of mentors – over 40 throughout film/tv and in the US, UK, Canada and Australia. Top people. People who can actually make things happen. From this 40 you usually get another 5-10 from referrals from the mentor and we add a few more on once we know the winning scripts and determine who else might respond. So there are a lot of people you’re meeting and building a working relationship with. We really mentor you throughout. We always go the extra mile and stay in touch, continuing to help long after the year has passed.

Lastly, we don’t overcharge and you can connect with your consultant if you need to clarify notes. We’re available to you. And we speak to all the semi-finalists after the competition and talk about the industry, your script, game plans for representation, etc. We end up working with some of the semi-finalists as well!

How can people find out more about you and the services you provide?

Our website is chock-full of information at www.finishlinescriptcomp.com. And you can email us with questions at info@finishlinescriptcomp.com. We’re on Twitter, Instagram and Facebook too!

I’d also like to point out if you have a script for a feature, short, or TV pilot, both this year’s Finish Line Script Competition and the Tirota/Finish Line Social Impact Competition are now open for submissions. Click on the link above for all the details.

Readers of this blog are more than familiar with my love/appreciation of pie. What’s your favorite kind? 

Hands down, it’s apple. Preferably apple crisp. ‘Merica, right?

Q & A with Heidi Hornbacher of PageCraft

A graduate of UCLA’s screenwriting program, Heidi Hornbacher has written numerous features, treatments, and TV pilots for various independent producers. She’s judged for the Slamdance Film Festival screenwriting contest and co-founded the Slamdance Script Clinic. She and her husband founded PageCraft Writing in 2008, offering script coaching and writing retreats in LA and Italy. Her clients include Emmy winners, TV legends, and brand new writers too. Heidi has written, directed, and produced numerous commercials, music videos, and electronic press kits for various artists. She’s currently making a documentary film about British artist Paul Whitehead.

What’s the last thing you read/watched you considered to be exceptionally well-written?

There is so much great TV right now. I was mesmerized by I May Destroy You. Anything that makes me say “wow, I could not have written that” I love. I had a Kenyan writer on my podcast recently and she noted that it was a very African storytelling style which I found particularly interesting. 

How’d you get your start in the industry?

I moved to Los Angeles to go to the UCLA Professionals Program in Screenwriting at night and landed a day job at Paramount as a president’s assistant. From there it was a lot of reading, learning, developing skills, and networking. And just making things without waiting for permission.

Is recognizing good writing something you think can be taught or learned?

I think this is absolutely something that can be taught. If you have a natural instinct it helps but you can train your eye to spot things the same way a sommelier trains to spot subtle flavor differences in wine. When I first started reading for contests I would decide to advance or decline a script based on instinct, but had to develop the facility to be able to say why.

Once I could could point to things like unmotivated dialogue, a major story turn being on the B story but missing from the A story, unearned reveals, etc. it helped me codify those elements into my own writing and into a teachable curriculum for PageCraft.

What do you consider the components of a good script?

Solid characters that have been well developed with clear goals, and positive and negative stakes to achieving those goals. Scenes that work hard to move your story forward and don’t just sit there. Even in a reflective moment, we should be learning something new about the character or they should be learning something about themselves. Every scene having a clear Goal-Obstacle-Outcome, or what we call GOO structure. Yes. EVERY SCENE.

What are some of the most common screenwriting mistakes you see?

Where to begin? The most offensive mistakes are things like not spellchecking (how hard is that?) and grammar errors. Those tell me you just don’t care about your craft or my time, so why should I give my time to looking at your craft?

A lot of scripts that are findable online, etc. are shooting scripts rather than original scripts so I see a lot of bad habits writers pick up from those such as writing in edit and camera direction. There should never be a CUT TO or CLOSE UP ON in your original script. Every slug line implies a cut so there’s that, and you should be able to imply the angle and type of shot by how masterfully you work your action lines.

I see a lot of over-directing the actor from the page. Unless a movement is key to the plot, don’t tell your actors how to move their bodies. The hardest thing about screenwriting is getting your head around the fact that it’s a collaborative art where we often never meet our collaborators because they come in after we’ve done our part. Learning to trust that your actors are going to bring nuance and physical choices to the role can be like a trust fall. If you’ve written the script well with clear context for what that character is going through, the actor will run with it.

What story tropes are you just tired of seeing?

Aside from lazy things like the detective with the board full of photos connected by red string, I’m really tired of societal tropes; rape as a motivator for why a female character becomes stronger, stories that only view Black characters as suffering characters. Can we move on? We’re more nuanced as humans so our stories should be too.

Then there are just overused dialogue lines like “it might just work”, “that went well”, and “we’re a lot alike, you and I.” We actually have a powerpoint with stills from over 40 films and shows illustrating how overused that last one is.

What are some key rules/guidelines every writer should know?

-As I said above: Make sure there is GOO (Goal-Obstacle-Outcome) in every single scene.

-Make sure you have a solid structure and outline before you start writing. You need a roadmap!

-Make sure you’ve done your character work and understand what motivates them. Make sure you’ve done as much work for the antagonist as for the protagonist so the struggle is worth your protagonist’s time. 

-Make sure every major story turn occurs on the A storyline – the external story. Turns on the B and C storylines can serve as point and counterpoint to that but if a turn is missing from the A story, the narrative will feel off and it can be hard to see why. 

-Remember that a script is a blueprint for a visual story and as such everything in it needs to be visual and filmable so no internal writing about what a character feels or remembers – we should get that from how you externalize those feelings. 

-Break up action line chunks by story beat, audience focus or implied new camera angle so they stay below 5 lines each and keep the reader’s eye flowing down the page.

Have you ever read a script where you thought “This writer gets it”? If so, what were the reasons why?

All the time! It’s clear when a writer just doesn’t know the rules versus a writer who knows the rules and breaks them creatively. These tend to be scripts with thoroughly developed characters, great pacing, and a satisfying emotional catharsis. They are scripts with a clear point of view and strong positive and negative stakes for the characters. Their message is the byproduct of a great story and not the sole reason for the story (i.e. the story isn’t preachy).

How do you feel about screenwriting contests? Worth it or not?

It depends. If you do well in a big one, you can get noticed. The right ones can help you get representation or otherwise forward your project. For example, one of my clients just won the Nicholl. She will get lots of meetings off of that.

There are obviously a ton that are a waste of money but it can boost your confidence to get those laurels. There is a backside to that too. When I see scripts in competition with laurels on the title page (DO NOT DO THIS!), it’s like they’re painting a target on themselves saying “find reasons to tear this down” and, except in the rare occasion when it’s a stellar script, we always can.

How can people find out more about you and the services you provide?

Visit us at PageCraftWriting.com. Our next round of script workshops starts in January, we offer one-on-one consulting services, and check out our Hearthside Salons podcast (on Podbean and iTunes) featuring conversations with writers, directors and other creatives.

Readers of this blog are more than familiar with my love/appreciation of pie. What’s your favorite kind?

That’s like asking me to pick a favorite sunset. I love anything fruit-related and made some killer loquat-ginger pies this spring. But I love pecan and pumpkin so I’m happy it’s that time of year. More pie!

Q & A with Naomi Beaty of Write+Co

Naomi Beaty is a screenwriting teacher and consultant who works with writers, producers, and directors at all levels to develop their film and TV projects. Naomi has read thousands of scripts and worked with hundreds of writers, first as a junior development exec at Madonna and Guy Oseary’s Maverick Films, and currently through group workshops and one-on-one coaching.

She also wrote the short, actionable guide Logline Shortcuts: Unlock your story and pitch your screenplay in one simple sentence.

What’s the last thing you read/watched you considered to be exceptionally well-written?

I’ve been bingeing a lot of series over the past several months (who hasn’t?) and the three I absolutely fell in love with have been The Great, Mrs. America, and The Queen’s Gambit.

And I was blown away recently by a script I read for a client, but I haven’t asked if it’s okay to mention him here, so I won’t. But if anyone’s looking for an amazing boxing movie, I’d be happy to connect you!

How’d you get your start in the industry?

Like a lot of people, I went the assistant route. I worked for a producer-manager, which was a great introduction to how the industry works. And then moved into development at a larger production company, which was a real education. 

Is recognizing good writing something you think can be taught or learned?

We all have gut reactions that tell us whether a story moves us, right? But being able to read a screenplay and understand whether or how it’s working takes some experience. So there’s obviously something to be said for whether a screenplay gets an emotional response from you, but we shouldn’t stop there. It takes time and effort and a lot of reading analytically in order to truly understand what makes writing “good.” 

What do you consider the components of a good script?

A strong concept, structure that delivers a satisfying experience, characters we care about and invest in who are transformed by the events of the story, clear, meaningful stakes, dialogue we actually want to hear. And all of those things working together in a way that makes us feel something.

What are some of the most common screenwriting mistakes you see?

There are a bunch that I think fall under one big umbrella, which is: forgetting that you’re a storyteller. We want you to guide us through the story, direct our focus, tease out the tension, all to achieve the effect you want. It’s easy to overlook when there’s so much that goes into just figuring out how to put a story together, you know? But the delivery of it can separate good from great.

What story tropes are you just tired of seeing?

The clumsy hot chick comes to mind. It’s right up there with “beautiful but doesn’t know it.”

What are some key rules/guidelines every writer should know?

I often joke that there are no rules in screenwriting… except these three:

1. Don’t confuse us.

2. Don’t bore us.

3. Make us feel something.

Other good guidelines:

– Know what story you’re writing. That doesn’t mean you have to know on the first draft – sometimes it takes time to figure it out – but until you know, that script is going to be a struggle.

– Make sure you share that story with the audience. We need to clearly understand who wants what, why they want it, what they’re doing to get it, and what’s stopping them. It sounds basic, but you’d be surprised how few scripts really nail all of those pieces.

– Start with the strongest concept you can. It’s something that’s tough to correct for later on.

– Learn how to build and escalate emotional stakes! I don’t think I’ve ever read a script that wasn’t better for it.

– Finish your screenplays whenever possible. Abandoning something halfway through because it doesn’t seem to be working means you never get the chance to learn why it isn’t working, how you could fix it, or what you should do differently next time.

Have you ever read a script where you thought “This writer gets it.” If so, what were the reasons why?

Yes! The script doesn’t have to be perfect, but when it’s clear that the writer knows how to put a story together and can convey it in a way that it feels like a movie – then I know that writer gets it.

How do you feel about screenwriting contests? Worth it or not?

Some are, most are not, but in the end it really depends on what you mean by “worth it.” If you’re just looking for a reaction from a fresh set of eyes and a sense of how your script stacks up against others, there are a number of contests that can offer that.

If you’re looking to actually move the needle in your career, there are very few contests that are worth the cost of entry.

How can people find out more about you and the services you provide?

The best place to find information about my services and workshops is my website! writeandco.com. I also have a short ebook that’s available for free on Amazon, called Logline Shortcuts.

Readers of this blog are more than familiar with my love/appreciation of pie. What’s your favorite kind?

If I’m allowed a savory choice, I’ll take a chicken pot pie. But for dessert, chocolate cream pie with graham cracker crust, please.

Q & A with David Wappel

David Wappel is a screenwriter and story consultant. He recently wrote the screenplay for Long Gone By, now available on HBO MaxAmazon, and iTunes. Wappel worked in production and post-production for five years before turning to writing. His stories often feature themes of private courage, nostalgic longings, and contradictions.

He has consulted writers, producers, game developers, and others on their narrative work. In addition to screenwriting, you’ll find Wappel talking about Tolkien, Shakespeare, or sailing.

What’s the last thing you read/watched you considered to be exceptionally well-written?

This is a tough one for me, because I watch or listen to at least one Shakespeare production a week, and it’s hard not to just answer with one of his plays.

So setting the Bard aside, the last thing I watched that was exceptionally well-written was an episode of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine titled The Visitor. Written by Michael Taylor, it’s the second episode of season four of the series, and it’s deftly simple and incredibly human.

I also recently rewatched Dead Again, written by Scott Frank. I’ve already seen it a handful of times, but I wanted to share it with my parents. What I love most about the script is the way it continues to surprise throughout, with twists and turns both big and small. It’s like a rabbit hole that just keeps going down.

Oh, and if I’m not setting Shakespeare aside, the answer is The Globe’s 2015 production of The Merchant of Venice.

How’d you get your start in the industry?

I actually first started out working in post-production in Atlanta. I was an editor for a small production company. Editing is just writing with an extremely limited vocabulary. As an editor, you can only storytell with what is provided, and it’s actually pretty amazing how much power you have to manipulate the moments by organizing shots in various arrangements.

So when I made the pivot into writing, I had already been looking at story as sequential bits of information, and it helped me understand how to build a moment, a scene, a sequence, or a story, piece by piece.

Is recognizing good writing something you think can be taught or learned?

I’m going to be a bit cheeky and say it doesn’t have to be taught or learned. We already know when something is good writing from our emotional reaction. Humans are designed to have stories act on us emotionally. So instead of looking at a text and deciding if it is good writing or not, all you actually need to do is read it and look at yourself. If you’re responding to it, it’s good writing.

What isn’t as apparent, but can be taught and learned is why something is good writing. One can study the patterns and structures, micro and macro, that seem to crop up again and again as effective ways to produce emotions in the audience. Writing, I believe, is both an art and a craft, and has tools and techniques like any other craft. How to employ those tools and techniques can be taught. Why to employ those tools and techniques is a little bit trickier, because it’s far more subjective. That’s what makes it art.

What do you consider the components of a good script?

When I’m reading, I’m looking for a few things. One thing I find myself sensitive to is honesty. Are the characters acting in ways that feel truthful. And that doesn’t mean it has to be grounded, but it has to be truthful to the established world.

I’m also looking for specificity. Whether it’s a feature or an episode of television, I value a script that is doing a “deep dive” into a specific aspect of the human condition. That may sound like it needs to be profound, but it doesn’t. It just needs to be specific. Mediocre scripts tend be about a general idea, but the great ones take a very specific idea, and explore it fully.

On a technical level, I value clarity. Not only do I want to visually understand what is happening, but particularly for the screen, I want to have a good sense of how I’m seeing it. For me, that’s the biggest thing that separates screenwriting from other forms of writing, even playwriting. It’s the explicit visual component, and the limitation of the lens. I don’t need every shot selected, but I want a sense of how this will unfold on a screen.

In my opinion, a major component of a good script is restraint. I’m looking for human behavior, and nothing else. I want to see what characters are saying and doing, and draw my own conclusions. When I read a screenplay that tries to tease out meaning in the action lines (or even in the dialogue sometimes) I find myself checking out. It feels a bit like someone grabbing a puzzle piece and fitting it into the slot for you. People don’t do puzzles just because they like how it looks when it’s complete, they enjoy the act of completing it.

What are some of the most common screenwriting mistakes you see?

I think the most common screenwriting mistake I see is more of an artistic mistake than a craft mistake, and it’s basically not having a specific enough answer to the question, “What are you trying to say?”

Corollary to that question is this one: “Why do you want to say it?”

Those two answers can act as guideposts for a writer, and will help navigate story choices. Without some reflection on these, a technically proficient story will end up vague and dull.

What story tropes are you just tired of seeing?

Honestly, none of them. What I’m tired of seeing are tropes lazily explored. Tropes are simply common patterns that are emotionally effective. What often happens is that more than the underlying pattern gets repeated, and we get bored of seeing the same thing over and over again.

For me, the key to keeping tropes fresh is to understand why they are tropes in the first place. What is the pattern beneath it? There’s clearly a satisfying story element there, and going in the opposite direction to avoid a trope may be going in the opposite direction of that satisfying story element. You want to understand how it’s working so that you can approach it, then zig-zag away in a specific way. You’ll get all the benefit of a story pattern, without it feeling stale.

All that said, I’m completely over the “wife killed, husband wants revenge” trope.

What are some key rules/guidelines every writer should know?

This is in no way meant to be comprehensive or authoritative, but these are some guidelines I try to go by when writing.

-Writing is 90% thinking and feeling, and 10% typing.

-Melodramatic writing is not fixed on the page it occurs. It is fixed in all the pages preceding it, and then on the page it occurs.

-A character’s voice and a character’s worldview are two different things.

-People are different versions of themselves depending on who else is in the room. Characters should be the same.

-Adjectives and adverbs may point to opportunities for stronger nouns and verbs.

-Always be reading.

-Wardrobe, makeup, props, and production design all provide storytelling tools. Make sure you’re using them.

-Turn off the critic for your first draft. After that, question every word.

-When approaching a problem, see if it can be solved first by removing lines, rather than adding lines.

-Understanding how your characters interact with the world outside of the story of your script can provide insight for how they interact with the world within it.

Have you ever read a script where you thought “This writer gets it”? If so, what were the reasons why?

Plenty of times, and while I’m sure it’s different for everybody, for me  the answer is in showing simple, specific moments of humanity. When I feel like a writer lasers in on something small, and then continues to explore each facet of it through a sort of narrative microscope, then I feel like I’m in good hands.

How can people find out more about you and the services you provide?

You can check out my website, davidwappel.com, and while I have a page on there about my services, it’s also about me as a writer. The best way is probably to connect with me on Twitter.

Readers of this blog are more than familiar with my love/appreciation of pie. What’s your favorite kind?

Apple, by a mile.

Dismantle, reassemble

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Sometimes when you’re working on a story, you just have this feeling that the way it’s being told is the way it should be told. It just feels right.

Even though I’d made some good progress with the ongoing revision of the sci-fi adventure outline, something still seemed…off. What I had was good, including several scenes that now felt necessary, but as a whole, not quite there yet.

As I’ve mentioned before, I keep all the previous drafts of the outline and script on file –  you never know when some of that text will come in handy. The recent work on the current revision was accompanied by another tab on the screen containing the previous draft, serving primarily as a sort of roadmap to help guide me through this latest effort.

Despite telling myself that this new draft was supposed to be different from its predecessor, its siren call was a bit stronger than expected. There was just something about it that couldn’t be denied. Not to say that the newer version was no slouch either.

Parts of this one work, and parts of that one work. Why not combine the two?

Sure, this even-newer draft might occasionally take a somewhat unorthdox approach in how the story’s presented, but by gosh, I still like it. “Rules of screenwriting” be damned.

There’s nothing wrong with cherry-picking parts of the new draft and incorporating them into the previous one where applicable. Of course, it would have been nice to have come to this conclustion a few weeks ago, but sometimes that’s just how it works.

What’s really nice is that for the most part, save for a few problem spots, the previous draft is still pretty solid on its own. Nothing serious, and some of these new elements look like they’ll really rectify that.

Based on some extremely helpful notes, another factor that’ll help this time around is putting more of a spotlight on the characters’ emotions. Even in this kind of story, with all of its fantastical and extraordinary elements, it’s important to show how the characters are still people.

Lastly, all the time I’ve been working on this story, I’d forgotten how the initial concept and earliest versions were all written with a certain kind of tone in mind; something to really convey the vibe of what story of story this was supposed to be and how I wanted it to read. Somehow that aspect’s diminished over time, and I plan on re-introducing it for the next draft.

This is gonna be fun.